squidfish  
The world's biggest squid fishing community.
Join the discussion now!  
Home | Squidfish Forums | Site Search

Squid Biology and Research

Introduction

Firstly, there is a wealth of information about the habitat, biology, reproduction and distribution of squid at the following websites and I highly recommend that you explore these sites ­ You may also like to visit the squidfish forums that has sections devoted to Squid Research, Giant Squid, Commercial Squid Fishing and many other topics that might be of interest to you.

There is some valuable information about the biology of market squid ­ Loligo opalescens provided on the following page ­ The Tantalizing Squid

Below you will find some additional information ­

(1) information specifically relating to Southern Calamary ­ Sepioteuthis australis which is a popular squid species for recreational and commercial squid fishing in Australia.

(2) a selection of publications (some of which are available online) relating to squid biology and squid fisheries generally.


If you would like to suggest additions to this page please contact squidfish using the contact form.

Sections

Southern Calamary ­ Habitat and Diet

This site was orginally dedicated to Southern Calamary (Sepioteuthis australis), which is the most accessible squid species for land­ based fisherman in Southern Australia.

Southern Calamary (also commonly called Southern Calamari) can be caught all year round, typically in waters less than 10 metres deep. They grow as large as 4 kg!!!! Calamary are aggressive predators that feed mostly on small fish and crustaceans.

Recreational fisherman typically encounter small schools of calamary (less than 10 individuals) and they are usually found overpatchy reef or seagrass beds. Research scientists from the South Australian Research and Development Institute (SARDI) have encountered schools of up to 10,000 individuals.

Southern Calamary are also known as calamary, grass squid and squid. They inhabit coastal waters in depths usually less than 100m. They are very common in coastal bays and inlets around Victoria and South Australia.

Newly hatched calamary are found in 2­ 30 metres of water and feed on mysid shrimp and other small crustaceans. Young calamari (7­ 13cm mantle length) are found in deeper water and feed on larger crustaceans and small fish. Adult squid mostly feed on small fish.

Southern Calamary can attain a mantle length of 55 cm and weigh up to 4 kilograms.

Southern Calamary ­ Reproduction


Southern Calamari reach sexual maturity when they reach a mantle length of 16­ 20cm. The adult calamari migrate to shallow coastal areas where they lay their eggs and attach them to bottom objects (mainly seagrass, algae and ascidians). Although Southern Calamari spawn throughout the year, there appears to be a peak in spawning activity between December and March.

Calamari eggs are deposited in white, finger­ like capsules. Each capsule is about 50­ 70mm long and contains up to 6 eggs. The squid hatches directly into miniature swimming adults.

Squid Related Sites, Books and Publications


Attracting fish with light
Author: Ben­ Yami, M.
FAO Training Series ­ No.14
1926
Publisher/Date: Rome : Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1988. Description: viii, 72 p. : ill.

Cephalopods of commercial importance in Australian fisheries
Author: Victoria Wadley and Malcolm Dunning
Publisher/Date: Hobart : CSIRO, 1998.
Description: v, 65 p., xii leaves of plates : ill., col. plates ; 30 cm.

Cuttlefish and Squids of the World in Color
http://www.zen­ ika.com/zukan/index.html
(Comprehensive website including Australian & NZ species)

Effects of time of solar day, jigging method and jigging depth on catch rates and size of Gould's squid, Nototoddarus gouldi (McCoy), in southeastern Australian waters.
Author: Nowara G.B and T.I. Walker
http://www.cephbase.utmb.edu/refdb/pdf/6871.pdf
(1998) Fisheries Research. 34 (3) : pp.279­ 288

Exploratory jigging for squid Nototodarus gouldi (McCoy) in Victorian and Bass Strait waters
Author: R.H. Winstanley.
Publisher/Date: East Melbourne, Vic. : Ministry for Conservation, Fisheries and Wildlife Division, 1982.
Guide to squid, cuttlefish and octopuses of Australasia
Author: Mark Norman & Amanda Reid
Publisher/Date: Collingwood, Vic.: CSIRO Publishing ; Moorabbin, Vic. : Gould League of Australia, 2000.
Description: 96 p. : col. ill. ; 24 cm.

Handlining and squid jigging
Author: Bjarnason. B.A.
http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/003/T0511E/T0511E00.HTM
FAO Training Series, no. 23
ISBN 92­ 5­ 103100­ 2
(Online publication in html format. Also available in print)

Squid
Author: G. D. STROUD
http://www.fao.org/wairdocs/tan/x5948e/x5948e00.htm
MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE, FISHERIES AND FOOD
TORRY RESEARCH STATION
TORRY ADVISORY NOTE No. 77
(Online publication in html format)

Squid Research in Australia
http://www.cephbase.utmb.edu/dirdb/dirdb.cfm
(Use the drop down menu to list Australian scientists currently studying squid)

More Squid Books (by publication year)

1500-1899 | 1900-1949 | 1950-1969 | 1970-1979 | 1980-1984 | 1985-1989 | 1990-1994 | 1995-1999 | 2000-2005 | Misc

Scientific Journal Articles


Find below a list of scientific articles relating to squid fishing. This is intended to give you a feel for squid fishing research that is currently underway. If you have any other squid related articles that you think deserve to be to be listed then please let me know. I am particularly interested in articles relating to Australian species of squid.

If you are involved in squid research and would like squidfish.net to help promote your research then please let us know!
Frog.gif
The dynamics of the summer spawning population of the loliginid squid Sepioteuthis australis in Tasmania, Australia ­ a conveyor belt of cohorts.
Jackson, G.D. & Pecl, G.T. (2003). In press: ICES

Small­ scale spatial and temporal patterns of egg production by the temperate loliginid squid Sepioteuthis australis.
Moltschaniwskyj, N.A. & G.T. Pecl (2003). In press: Marine Biology.

An assessment of the use of short­ term closures to protect spawning southern calamary aggregations from fishing pressure in Tasmania, Australia.
Moltschaniwskyj, N.A., Pecl, G.T. & J. M. Lyle (2003). In press: Bulletin of Marine Science.

Flexible spawning strategies in tropical and temperate Sepioteuthis squids
Pecl, G.T. (2001). Marine Biology 138: 93­ 101.

Comparative life history of tropical and temperate Sepioteuthis squids in Australian waters.
Pecl, G.T. (2000). PhD Thesis, James Cook University of North Queensland, 173pp.

Somatic growth processes: How are they altered in captivity?
Pecl, G.T. & N.A. Moltschaniwskyj (1999). Proceedings B: Biological Sciences 266: 1­ 7.

Changes in muscle structure associated with growth in a tropical cephalopod.
Pecl, G.T. & N.A. Moltschaniwskyj (1997). Journal of Zoology, London 242: 751­ 764.

Muscle structure and dynamics of Idiosepius pygmaeus, a small tropical sepioid.
Pecl, G.T. (1994). Honours Thesis, James Cook University of North Queensland, 95pp.

Approaches on hand squid jigging technique in the central North Pacific Ocean.
Author: Zhang,­ Shenghai; Sun,­ Manchang
SO: Marine­ fisheries; Haiyang­ Yuye­ Shanghai [Mar­ Fish; Haiyang­ Yuye] 1999 no. 3, pp. 116­ 118
LA: Chinese
Abstract:
Hand jigging operation plays an important role in the squid jigging fishery in North Pacific Ocean. Based on field measurements, this paper analyzed the main technical factors affecting hand jigging efficiency, including jigging rate, jigging cycle and hauling up speed of hand jigging line, and concluded that the suitable technical indexes were as follows: 1) jigging rate: 5 times/s, 2) jigging cycle: 2.16 s/time, 3) hauling up speed: 70­ 75m/s.

Comparison of catch, CPUE, and sea surface temperature in the fishing ground between good and poor fishing years for the squid jigging fishery target New Zealand southern arrow squid Nototodarus sloanii in New Zealand waters.
OT: Nyujirando surumeika no gyokaku to gyojo suion ni kansuru kogyonen to furyonen no hikaku
Author: Kato,­ Mitsuhiro; Mitani,­ Isamu
SO: Bull­ Kanagawa­ Prefect­ Fish­ Res­ Inst 2001 no. 6, pp. 35­ 46
LA: Japanese
Abstract:
The catch of New Zealand southern arrow squid Nototodarus sloanii in the good and poor fishing years were described comparatively based on the statistics of squid jigging fishery. In the good fishing years, there were two peaks of catch in mid­ February and late march. On the other hand, in the poor fishing years, there was only one peak of catch in mid­ February. Both in the good and poor fishing years, the main size of squid caught by jigging fisheries was larger than 22 cm mantle length (=320 g body weight) through the fishing season. There was a clear correlation in CPUE between smaller­ sized squid in mid­ February and larger­ sized squid in late March. This result shows the CPUE of smaller­ sized squid in the early fishing season is one potential index for estimation of the catch in the coming season. From the relationship between the sea surface temperature and CPUE (catch in tons/vessel/day), CPUE was higher when the surface temperature is more than 16 degree C in mid­ February. On the other hand, in late March, CPUE was higher when the temperature is less than 14 degree C.

Underwater irradiance distribution of fishing lights used by small­ type squid jigging boat
OT: Kogata­ ikatsuri­ gyosen no shugyotoko no kaichu­ hosha­ shodo bunpu
Author: Asano,­ Kenji; Choi,­ Sokjin; Asano,­ Kenji; Nakamura,­ Yoshio
SO: NIPPON­ SUISAN­ GAKKAISHI 1996 vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 420­ 427
LA: Japanese
Abstract:
The spectral distribution of downward irradiance in the sea around a squid jigging boat ( < 30 Gt) was investigated with special reference to the type and total kW output of fishing lamps, in the fishing ground of Toyama Bay and off Tsushima Island in June and November 1994, respectively. The downward irradiance distributions in the waters shallower than 20 m depth and within the horizontal distance from the bow to the stern of the boat were coaxial semicircles in shape with a center at the midship position of the boat: Below 30 m depth, the downward irradiances, however, were almost equally distributed in the horizontal direction for the same distance. The downward irradiances in the water just under the boat were considerably lower than those around the boat. Such differences decreased with increasing depth in irradiance intensity, and almost disappeared below 30 m.

Effect of underwater fishing light on daytime jigging operation for large­ size neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartrami
OT: oogata akaika no hiruzuri sogyo ni okeru suichu shugyoto no koka
Author: Inada,­ Hiroshi; Hirokawa,­ Sumio; Yatsu,­ Akihiko
SO: NIPPON­ SUISAN­ GAKKAISHI 1996 vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 73­ 77
LA: Japanese
Abstract:
Experimental daytime jigging operations were conducted to examine the effect of underwater fishing light for large­ size neon flying squid (>30 cm mantle length) in the North Pacific Ocean with 3 research vessels. Using underwater fishing lights set at a depth of 180 m and 4 jig­ lines operated within a depth of 3O0 m by each R/V, only the target species was caught in the operation. The condition of switching the underwater fishing light on and off was assigned systematically to each R/V and time of day. The underwater fishing light was found to have a significant­ effect on the squid catch from the results of simultaneous operation with 3 R/Vs between 90 min and 30 min before sunset.

The New Zealand squid fishery, 1979­ 93
Author: Gibson,­ D.J.M.
CA: Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Wellington (New Zealand)
SO: N.Z.­ FISH.­ TECH.­ REP. WELLINGTON­ NEW­ ZEALAND MAF­ FISHERIES 1995 no. 42, 43 pp
LA: English
Abstract:
This report describes the New Zealand squid fishery, which began in the mid 1970s and now accounts for 4% of the world's squid catch. The biology of New Zealand's 2 arrow squids Nototodarus gouldi and N.sloanii, is reviewed and the trawl and jig fisheries are described with details of the distribution of catch and effort.

Squid gear trials and assessment
Author: Yeomans,­ K.
SO: BRISBANE,­ QLD­ AUSTRALIA QUEENSLAND­ DEPARTMENT­ OF­ PRIMARY­ INDUSTRIES 1995 7 pp
LA: English
Abstract:
A preliminary report is presented on trials to compare jigging gear with trawling for squid, particularly Photololigo spp., off Queensland.

Study on velocity variation of winding jigs by hauling drum for automatic squid jigging machine
OT: Ikatsuriki no doramu no keijo ni yoru makiage sokudo no hendo
Author: Guo,­ H.; Yada,­ S.; Toda,­ M.; Nakamura,­ Y.
SO: UMI­ MER 1995 vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 119­ 124
LA: Japanese
Abstract:
The velocity variations of winding jigs using different shapes of hauling drums were simulated and analysed for the automatic squid jigging machine.

Fishing efficiency of squid jigging in relation to the variation of fishing lamp power
Author: An,­ Heui­ Chun; Choo,­ Hae­ Dae
SO: BULL.­ NATL.­ FISH.­ RES.­ DEV.­ AGENCY­ KOREA 1993 no. 48, pp. 179­ 186
LA: Korean
Abstract:
Lighting power of fishing lamps using in squid jigging fisheries had greatly increased because of the competition of lamp power between the fishermen for gathering squid. In consequence the cost of lighting equipment and fuel caused pressure to the squid, jigging management and the strong lamp power caused trouble in fishermen's eye sight. To investigate an effective method in the use of fishing lamps the lamp power were variated in two steps as 15kW and 30kW and the catch amount relation to the lamp power were measured. The experiment were carried out in the coastal area near Chumunjin. Korea during June to July and November 1991. The surface water temperature were 20.6 ­ 21.9 degree C in June to July and 14.8 ­ 15.5 minus or plus in November. The dorsal mantle length of common squid caught in the experiment ranged 7.0 similar to 29.5 cm and mean dorsal mantle length is 15.6 cm. The underwater illumination intensity from 1m to 40m depth layer near the jigging machine at the vessel range 2.0 ­ 0.05 lux in lamp power 15kW and 2.78 ­ 0.06 lux in 30kW. The CPUE was 790.2g in lamp power 15kW and 494.7g in 30kW. The CPUE in 15kW was 1.6 times higher than 30kW.

(Methodology and automated data, squid jigging.).
OT: Metodologia y datos computados
CA: Instituto Nac. de Investigacion y Desarrollo Pesquero, Mar del Plata (Argentina)v SO: ROBOTS­ FOR­ SQUID­ FISHING­ IN­ ARGENTINA.. ROBOTS­ PARA­ PESCAR­ CALAMARES­ EN­ LA­ ARGENTINA. 1987. no. 584 pp. 71­ 112
LA: Spanish
Abstract:
Data on the catch, fishing techniques and processing of the squid caught in Argentine waters by Korean and Japanese vessels are presented. The effects of fishing on the mortality of the squid population are partially visualized. Also the size and sex distribution in the catch and the different processing techniques for storage of the caught squid are described.

(Comments of an observer on board the Hatko Maru 17.).
OT: Comentarios de un observador a bordo del Hatko Maru Nro. 17
Author: Kennedy,­ P.
SO: ROBOTS­ FOR­ SQUID­ FISHING­ IN­ ARGENTINA.. ROBOTS­ PARA­ PESCAR­ CALAMARES­ EN­ LA­ ARGENTINA. 1987. no. 584, pp. 65­ 70
LA: Spanish
Abstract:
The description of the deck equipment of a Korean jigging vessel is presented. The type and number of fishing machines, the lightning and the squid processing are described. Also the most frequent problems in the functioning of these devices are shown. Finally, a description of the fishing operations executed by the fishermen and the storing of the squid are described.

(The robotized fishing system. Equipment description and functioning.).
OT: El sistema de pesca robotizada. Descripcion de equipos y funcionamiento
Author: Malaret,­ P.E.
SO: ROBOTS­ FOR­ SQUID­ FISHING­ IN­ ARGENTINA.. ROBOTS­ PARA­ PESCAR­ CALAMARES­ EN­ LA­ ARGENTINA. 1987. no. 584, pp. 23­ 45
LA: Spanish
Abstract:
A description of the Japanese and Korean vessels used in the squid jigging fishery is presented. Emphasis is made in the use of light for attracting the squids. It was noted that the adequate use of light is the most important item in this fishing activity. The fishing gears used, pots, robots and manual machines are described. Finally, the techniques for sorting and conservation of the caught squid are described.

Comparative studies of squid trolling jigs in Japan.
Author: Shibata,­ K.; Masengi,­ A.; Takayama,­ H.
CO: 2. Asian Fisheries Forum, Tokyo (Japan), 17­ 22 Apr 1989
SO: THE­ SECOND­ ASIAN­ FISHERIES­ FORUM.­ PROCEEDINGS­ OF­ THE­ SECOND­ ASIAN­ FISHERIES­ FORUM,­ TOKYO,­ JAPAN,­ 17­ 22­ APRIL­ 1989. Hirano,­ R.;Hanyu,­ I.­ eds. 1990. pp. 743­ 746
LA: English
Abstract:
Trolling jigs, called "IKAGATA" in Japan, to catch, Sepioteusis lessoniana , are widely found in Japan, the Philippines, Sulawesi, the Sangihe and Molucca Is. of Indonesia. This study was made to consider local varieties of the jigs and necessary conditions of good jigs to hook the squid. The jigs can be roughly divided into fish and prawn types. The fish type is dominant in Japan and prawn type in Southeast Asia. Various dimensions of the jigs, specific gravity and longitudinal location of the gravity center were measured and some statistic considerations on the jigs were tried to identify the local varieties by area. The jigs in Japan are generally bigger than those in Southeast Asia in length. Their specific gravity is around 1.00 in mean and the longitudinal location of gravity center from the anterior tip is 37­ 47% of the total length of the jig.

The history and development of squid jigging fisheries in Japan.
Author: Saharuddin,­ A.H.; Ogura,­ M.; Arimoto,­ T.; Inada,­ H.
CO: 2. Asian Fisheries Forum, Tokyo (Japan), 17­ 22 Apr 1989
SO: THE­ SECOND­ ASIAN­ FISHERIES­ FORUM.­ PROCEEDINGS­ OF­ THE­ SECOND­ ASIAN­ FISHERIES­ FORUM,­ TOKYO,­ JAPAN,­ 17­ 22­ APRIL­ 1989. Hirano,­ R.;Hanyu,­ I.­ eds. 1990. pp. 739­ 742
LA: English
Abstract:
A study on the history and development of squid jigging fisheries was done to obtain the knowledge on the changes in Japanese squid fisheries. Almost all aspect concerning squid jigging fishery have undergone rapid changes within the past few decades. Conventional types of jigging gears had been converted to manual jigging rollers. This was followed by automatic computer operated jigging machines. Since the use of fire torches until the invention of the high intensity discharge (HID) lamp for attracting squid, many types of lamps have been used to bring a high squid catch. These changes were related to boat size and reflected the increase in scale of fishing intensity from coastal to distant­ water fishery. Nevertheless these improvements in the fishing methodology were shown to have created some problems. The use of optimal light intensity is suggested as a requisite in squid jigging.

Historical changes of fishing light and its operation in squid jigging fisheries.
Author: Inada,­ H.; Ogura,­ M.
SO: REP.­ TOKYO­ UNIV.­ FISH. 1988. no. 24, pp. 189­ 207
LA: Japanese
Abstract:
In the Japanese squid jigging fisheries, the electrified fishing lamp became very popular around 1950. Since then, the fishing gears methods have changed transitionally and the automatic squid jigging machine has been practically used since around 1965. The present report focuses on the historical changes of fishing lights and their operation. It also points out that the increase in lighting power of fishing lamp involves some problems and needed to be solved in order not only to treat the light as a means for attracting squid but also to promote the catch effectively by light in squid jigging fisheries.

Hand­ jigging for cuttlefish at Vizhinjam with a note on modern squid jigging.
Author: Nair,­ K.P.
SO: CEPHALOPOD­ BIONOMICS,­ FISHERIES­ AND­ RESOURCES­ OF­ THE­ EXCLUSIVE­ ECONOMIC­ ZONE­ OF­ INDIA. Silas,­ E.G.­ ed. Central­ Marine­ Fisheries­ Research­ Inst.,­ Cochin­ India 1985. no. 37 pp. 152­ 156
LA: English
Abstract:
At Vizhinjam on the southwest coast of India almost the entire catch of the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis is taken in a modified type of hook, the hand­ jig. The hand­ jig consists mainly of a small iron rod with tiers of hooks and a long monofilament line. The baited jig is operated on the sea bottom from a catamaran and normally one cuttlefish is taken per haul. A brief note on the modern squid jigging as practiced in Japan is also given.

The catching efficiency of squid jigging with artificial sound.
Author: Choo,­ H.D.; An,­ H.C.
SO: Bull­ Natl­ Fish­ Res­ Dev­ Inst­ Korea 1998 vol. 54, pp. 169­ 179
LA: Korean
Abstract:
The authors measured and analyzed underwater sound of the engine classified by bull parts of the research vessel Kydng buk 853 during squid jigging and properties of 10 types of underwater sound (4 types of intermittent pure sound, 6 types of complex sound as No.1 to No. 6). To compare the catching efficiency of artificial sound, the jigging with and without sound were tested in exchanging them in 30 minutes. The frequency and sound pressure of the engine sound of the research vessel during operation were 40­ 170Hz and 132­ 157dB, respectively. The frequency and sound pressure of the artificial underwater sound were 300, 400, 600, 800Hz and 140­ 150dB in intermittent pure sound and 128­ 1,120Hz and 130­ 138dB in case of the 6 types of complex sound. The characteristics of each sound wave pattern were different. The most excellent sound for increasing the catch rate of squid jiging was complex Sound No. 6 and the catch rate was 2.46 times as high as without sound. The next was complex Sound No. 3 (560­ 920Hz) and it was 1.94 times as high as without sound. The catch rate with intermittent pure sound of 600Hz and engine sound of the research vessel showed 0.73 and 0.77 times than without sound respectively.

An approach to squid jigging vessel and its equipments
Author: Hu,­ Mingyu
SO: J­ Shanghai­ Fish­ Univ; Shanghai­ Shuichan­ Daxue­ Xuebao 1996 vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 226­ 234
LA: Chinese
Abstract:
This paper deals with the development of squid jigging vessel and its equipment in China. It is known that from beginning till now the deep­ sea squid jigging fishery was formed near seven years only. In the initial stage, the vessels using for squid jigging depended on refitted trawlers and the equipment partly imported from foreign countries. Through a short time of practice. These implements play an important role in the fishery, and achieve good economic and social benefit. It should be noted that along with opening up the new fishing ground and developing fishery production, some shortcomings exist in the refitted vessels and some equipment, for example, the ship endurance and seaworthiness, catch ability, frozen and refrigerated space capacity, light intensity and efficiency of attracting fish lamp etc. In the present case, it is necessary to review the degree of adaptability of these implements based on analysing and summarizing the previous field operation and also to adopt some vital measures as well as the experience of Japan in developing squid jigging can be used for reference. In order to promote the further improvement on the vessel and equipment of squid jigging in the future, it needs to point out the direction of squid jigging fishery. (DBO)

Relationship between underwater irradiance and distribution of Japanese common squid under fishing light of a squid jigging boat
Author: Arakawa,­ Hisayuki; Choi,­ Sokjin; Arimoto,­ Takefumi; Nakamura,­ Yoshihiko
SO: Fish­ Sci 1998 vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 553­ 557
LA: English
Abstract:
The relationship between the distribution of Japanese common squid Todarodes pacificus beneath a boat and underwater irradiance of fishing lights was investigated during nighttime jigging operations off the Oki Islands, Shimane Prefecture in November 1995. The downward spectral irradiance under fishing lights of a power of 300 kW (metal­ halide type; white) was continuously measured with an underwater radiometer. The spatial distributions of squid attracted by the fishing lights were simultaneously detected with color sector scanning sonar. Sonar images of squid from a vertical­ section across the boat were approximately triangularshaped. The squid were distributed in the water layer between 30 and 70 meters deep, the densest part of the image occurring in the layer between 55 and 65 meters deep. Values of the downward spectral irradiance, when schools were distributed from 30 to 70 meters, ranged 1.8/10 super(2) to 5.4/10 super(4) mu W/cm super(2)/nm at 510nm, and 5.8/10 super(2) to 6.4/10 super(4) mu mol/m super(2)/s at PAR. Further, vertical profiles of the squid corresponded closely to the distribution of underwater irradiance intensity. We also determined that the upper limit of the squid distribution approximated the 2 /10 super(2) mu W/cm super(2)/nm contour at 510nm.

Transmittance characteristics of fishing light according to the squid jigging ground of the sea of Japan
OT: Nihonkai no ikatsuri gyoba ni okeru kaisui no kogakuteki suigata to shogyo koto no tokasei
Author: CHOI,­ SOKJIN; ARAKAWA,­ HISAYUKI; NAKAMURA,­ YOSHIHIKO; ARIMOTO,­ TAKAFUMI
SO: Nippon­ Suisan­ Gakkaishi 1998 vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 650­ 657
LA: Japanese
Abstract:
The spectral distribution patterns of downward irradiance were studied in the squid jigging grounds of the Sea of Japan to examine fishing light transmittance according to the optical characteristics in areas and seasons. The optical water types in the summer season in the Sea of Japan can be classified into oceanic type IB­ II for Shakotan Peninsula offshore to western Akita Prefecture, oceanic type II for northern Hyogo Prefecture to San­ in offshore, oceanic type II­ III for northern Noto Peninsula, northern San­ in offshore and Tsushima offshore waters. In autumn, oceanic type II­ III for San­ in and III for Tsushima offshore waters were determined. The fishing light transmittance at 510 nm wavelength was calculated as 6.27% at the depth of 50 m for the optical condition of oceanic type IB­ II, 2.77% for oceanic type II and 1.54% for oceanic type II­ III. According to optical observations in the San­ in and Tsushima fishing ground in autumn, the relative irradiance of fishing light at the depth of 50 m can be estimated to be 34­ 51% of that in summer.

Horizontal illuminance of line source model for fishing lamps around the coastal squid jigging boats
OT: Shugyoto ni yoru kogataikatsuri gyosenshuhen no kaimenshodobunpu
Author: Choi,­ Sokjin; Nakamura,­ Yoshihiko; Arimoto,­ Takafumi
SO: Nippon­ Suisan­ Gakkaishi 1997 vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 160­ 165
LA: Japanese
Abstract:
Line source model of fishing lamps for under­ surface illuminance around the coastal squid jigging boat was calculated with a formula based on the line source model of fishing lamps, the spacial luminous distribution of HID lamp and the surface reflectance by Fresnel's law. Calculated patterns of illuminance around the boat showed a good fit to the observed patterns in the fishing ground for the boats equipped with the lamps of 30 kW and 75 kW. According to the model of lighting pattern, the rational spacing of neighboured boats was considered to have a formula of Y= 95.2(ln A+ln B)­ 87, when Y(m) is a interval distance, A and B(kW) are the total consumed electricity for fishing lamps of two boats, with a hypothesis of minimum under­ surface illuminance for non­ interference which not proceed the level of 0.01 lx.

Mechanical characteristics of improved jigs to prevent squid falling off in the capturing process
Author: Guo,­ Haibo; Yada,­ Sadami; Toda,­ Masayoshi; Inada,­ Hiroshi
SO: FISH.­ SCI. 1997 vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 9­ 14
LA: English
Abstract:
To allure squids and prevent them from falling off from jigs, two new kinds of jigs were devised, the impeller­ dig and the roller­ jig. In the former, the velocity of water flow before the impeller installed in the lure case of the jig was proportional to the diameter of the opening holes on the lure case under a constant winding velocity of 0.6 m/s and 1.0 m/s. For the latter, the revolution of the roller set at the top of the jig was also proportional to winding velocity, and the roller turned faster at the groove helix angle of 30 degree than that of 20 degree and 45 degree . The results showed that the new jigs were useful and effective to allure the target squid and hold them firmly with the visual stimulation of the rotating parts.

Mechanisms of squid falling off and preventing dropping out from jig of automatic jigging machine
OT: jido ikatsuriki no dakko to datsuraku boshi no kiko
Author: Yada,­ Sadami; Guo,­ Haibo; Toda,­ Masayoshi; Nakamura,­ Yoshihiko
SO: UMI­ MER 1997 vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 23­ 30
LA: Japanese

Towing performance of jig for oval squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana
OT: Aoriika gijibari no undo
Author: Fuwa,­ Shigeru; Ishizaki,­ Munechika; Shin'­ Yashiki,­ Yoshikazu; Miyamoto,­ Shouji; Imai,­ Takehiko
SO: FISH.­ ENG.­ JAPAN­ SUISAN­ KOGAKU­ JAPAN 1996 vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 97­ 103
LA: Japanese
Abstract:
In order to clarify the towing performance of jigs for oval squid, Sepioteuthis lessoniana, two handmade samples of jigs were used in a flume tank. They are fish and shrimp types with the same volumes, and different lead weights were attached to their bodies to change the specific gravity and the position of the gravitational center. The towing performance of jigs were recorded on video tape. The data were investigated at 0.1 second intervals, and the speed and attack angle of the jigs were analyzed. The hydrodynamical resistance of the fish type was larger than that of the shrimp type. The shrimp type has larger attack angle than fish type at the given speed's conditions.

Physical characteristics of jig for oval squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana
OT: Aoriika gijiebari no keitai ni tsuite
Author: Fuwa,­ Shigeru; Ishizaki,­ Munechika; Okada,­ Naoki; Ikawa,­ Syougo; Imai,­ Takehiko
SO: FISH.­ ENG.­ JAPAN­ SUISAN­ KOGAKU­ JAPAN 1996 vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 229­ 238
LA: Japanese
Abstract:
In order to clarify the physhical characteristics of jig for oval squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana, the authors investigated local varieties and the necessary qualities of fishing jigs for oval squid. About 280 types of jigs were sampled in 12 areas of Shikoku, Ksushu, Amami Islands, and Menado of Indonesia. Various dimensions of jigs were measured and their physical characteristics were examined. The jigs were divided into two categories for quantitative analysis: Fish jigs and prawn jigs. The fish type was found in the Amami area only, but the prawn type was found in all areas. Two categrioes of jig had a common characteristic: The specific gravity was concentrated into 1.0, and the location of gravity center from the probosics was about 40% of the total length of the jig. Based on the results, the authors assumed that these were the basic characteristics of the jigs for oval squid.


The experimental research on the use of hooks and lines in squid jigging in the Southwest Atlantic
Author: Tang,­ Yi
SO: Journal­ of­ Shanghai­ Fisheries­ University; Shanghai­ Shuichan­ Daxue­ Xuebao [J­ Shanghai­ Fish­ Univ; Shanghai­ Shuichan­ Daxue­ Xuebao] 2001 vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 313­ 318
LA: Chinese
Abstract:
Based on the analysis on the surveys and experiment on squid jigging operation in the Southwest Atlantic waters in 2000, preliminary studies on the use of hooks and lines in jigging are reported in the paper. The results show that, 1) the fishing efficiency of the hooks of different colors is different, and that of the grass green hook is the best; 2) the lines should be kept in the water above the DSL; 3) the size of the hooks and the lines, the amount of hook on each line should be changed according to the variety of the size of the catches. It is suggested that in the prime of the fishing season, the size of the hooks and lines should respectively be phi = 1.0 mm and 50­ 60, 25­ 30 hooks on each line. While at the end of the fishing season, the size of the hooks and lines should respectively be phi = 1.17 ­ 1.30 mm and 80­ 90, 15­ 20 hooks on each line.


Environmental influences on spawning aggregations and jig catches of chokka squid Loligo vulgaris reynaudii: a `black box' approach
Author: Schoen,­ P.­ J.; Sauer,­ W.H.H.; Roberts,­ M.J.
SO: Bulletin­ of­ Marine­ Science [Bull­ Mar­ Sci] Boyle,­ P.R.; Collins,­ M.A.; Graham,­ J.P.­ (eds.) 2002 vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 783­ 800
LA: English
Abstract:
Erratic and highly variable catches in the South African chokka squid Loligo vulgaris reynaudii fishery, cause hardship for the industry and uncertainty for resource managers. Catch forecasting can reduce this problem. In this study, hourly data were collected from May 1996­ May 1998 aboard commercial fishing vessels on the inshore spawning grounds, along the south coast of South Africa. The environment­ catch relationship was investigated using multiple correlation and regression analysis and analysis of variance. A simple, direct, `black box' statistical approach was relatively successful in developing a predictive capability; on an hourly time­ scale the regression model accounted for 32% of the variability in catch, with turbidity the main determinant (13%). Seasonal and diel catch variations induced changes in the relative importance of turbidity, water temperature and wind direction on catches. A strong, positive relationship was found between easterly winds (which cause upwelling) and catch, particularly in summer. Catch rates, however, decreased with an increase in turbidity. The correlation between temperature and catch was generally negative, however, higher catches were associated with a temperature range of 13­ 18 degree C. Highest catch rates were associated with easterly winds, zero turbidity conditions and sea surface temperatures from 15.0­ 16.9 degree C. Selected case studies (in situ observations) suggested that upwelling, specifically in its role in changing temperature, and turbidity events act as environmental triggers for the initiation or termination of the spawning process, respectively. A holistic approach is required to improve predictive capability of chokka squid catch rates.


Analysis on biological characteristics of the catch of squid jigging in the Southwest Atlantic
Author: Tang,­ Yi
SO: Marine­ fisheries; Haiyang­ Yuye [Mar­ Fish; Haiyang­ Yuye] 2002 vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 14­ 19
LA: Chinese
Abstract:
Based on the surveys of squid jig operation in the Southwest Atlantic in 2000, an analysis on biological characteristics of the catch­ Illex argentinus is reported in the paper. The results show that (1) The ratio between males and females, the sexual maturity and the mantle length at maturity of females of the catches are quite different around March on high sea fishing ground. So it is suggested that the catch around March are composed of two stocks on high sea fishing ground in which the catch in Jan. and Feb. is mainly composed of summer ­ spawning stock (SSS), and the catch after Mar is replaced by south Patagonic stock (SPS). The ratio between males and females, the sexual maturity and the mantle length at maturity of females of the catches show that the catch in Falklands waters and the catch in high sea after Mar. are all composed of SPS; (2) The mantle length of the catch grows larger with time goes by and consequently the size of hooks and lines should be adjusted in accordance with different fishing seasons; 3) Illex argnetinus mainly feed at night, especially at nightfal and before dawn, and such time may be the best time for fishing.


Fishery Biological Studies of the Oval Squid, Sepioteuthis lessoniana around Tokushima Prefecture.
Author: Ueta,­ Yukio
SO: Bull­ Tokushima­ Prefect­ Fish­ Exp­ Stn 2000 no. 1, pp. 1­ 80
LA: Japanese
Abstract:
The oval squid, Sepioteuthis lessoniana (Lesson, 1830) is a loliginid squid widely distributed throughout the Indian and western to central Pacific Ocean. In Japan, this squid occurs in inshore waters extending from Okinawa Islands to southern Hokkaido and is one of the commercially important squids for neritic fisheries, especially in southern Japan. In outer waters adjacent to the Kii Channel around Tokushima Prefecture of Japan, oval squid is caught by set net fishery and squid jigging fishery throughout the year and is one of commercially important marine invertebrate resources because of the high price. The genetic similarity of oval squid around the Japanese Archipelago was examined by isozyme analysis of the three genetically highly divergent forms (SHIROIKA, AKAIKA, KUAIKA) that have already been established for S. lessoniana, ten of SHIROIKA­ form from waters around the Japanese main islands, and one AKAIKA­ form from Okinawa were identified out of eleven local examples. Isozyme analysis by horizontal starch­ gel electrophoresis detected 21 enzymes and 1 non­ enzymic protein, with 34 presumed loci. The genetic independence of AKAIKA reported elsewhere was reconfirmed by the complete replacement of alleles at 5 loci between the AKAIKA and SHIROIKA­ forms, with the average genetic distance (D value) between them being almost 0.2. In the SHIROIKA samp


Ecological Aspects of the Purpleback Flying Squid, Stenoteuthis oualaniensis (Lesson) in the West Coast of Philippines.
Author: Somboon­ Siriraksophon; Nakamura,­ Yoshihiko
SO: International­ Conference­ on­ the­ International­ Data­ and­ Information­ Exchange­ in­ the­ Western­ Pacific­ IODE­ WESTPAC­ 1999:­ The­ needs­ of­ scientific­ research­ programmes­ for­ oceanographic­ and­ coastal­ data 2001 pp. 187­ 194
LA: English
Abstract:
In an attempt to come up with initial jigging fishery on oceanic squid in the Southeast Asian Region SEAFDEC conducted a comparative study on the squid in the Philippines Exclusive Economic Zone off the coast of Western Philippines from 17 April to 9 May 1998. The survey objectives are to determine the distribution and abundance of the oceanic squid in relation to oceanographic conditions and to examine the feasibility of harvesting squid with automatic squid jigging gear. Results from 11 sampling stations show that only one species of the purpleback flying squid, Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis (Lesson, 1930) were caught by autometic squid jigging gear. The distribution and abundance of the purpleback flying squid in terms of the catch­ per­ unit­ effort (CPUE, number of squid per line hour) are presented. Over the entire survey area, the CPUE of the squid averaged 5.7 squid/line hour. Drop­ off rates for jigs fished on the jigging machines ranged from 0 to 0.33 squid/line hour. Angling depth where the squid were abundant ranged from 50 m to 100 m. The squid had a mean overall mantle length of 147 mm and an average weight of 0.17 kg. A total of 2,592 squid were measured and mantle length ranged from 90 to 250 mm. Female dominated the catch, accounting for 1,380 squid or 81% of the 1,701 squid sexed. Males were generally smaller than females. The mantle length composition for males was single peak mode at between 120 and 130 mm. Females also had one peak between 140 and 150 mm mantle length. A similar length­ weight relationship coefficients between male and female was found. Spawning grounds are expected to be at every station. The squid were found in a warm water mass where the sea temperature ranged from 14 degree C to 31 degree C at the depth from 150m up to sea surface at night. Fishing grounds of the squid were at 18 degree N latitude (18.5 squids/line hour) and at 19 degree N latitude (11.6 squids /line hour) off the San Fernando and Currimao coasts, respectively where the upwelling occurred. Dissolved oxygen where squid abundant was ranged from 3.27 to 4.4 ml/l. Downwelling was found at 16 degree N along the 118 degree E where less potential of the squid, the water transparency depth in this area was about 44 m. A period of 6 days before and after full moon day was good fishing day, while the percent illumination of the moon was less than 30%.


Reproductive biology of jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas in the Gulf of California, 1995­ 1997
Author: Markaida,­ U.; Sosa­ Nishizaki,­ O.
SO: Fisheries­ Research­ Amsterdam [Fish­ Res] 2001 vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 63­ 82
LA: English
Abstract:
A large­ scale, artisanal fishery for jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) occurred in the central Gulf of California between 1995 and 1997, mainly off Santa Rosalia and Guaymas, two areas of alternate seasonal upwelling. The fishery was supported mainly by large individuals: females maturing at 750mm ML and males maturing at two sizes, 530 and 670mm ML, respectively. A medium­ sized maturing group was also detected; 400mm ML for females and 330mm ML for males. The 77% of females (909 in total) were immature or maturing animals, while 77% of males (392 in total) were mature. The predominance of mature males relative to mature females suggests that the central Gulf of California is a feeding ground, although size selection by jig is difficult to assess. The alternate upwelling system could provide a food supply for the maturation of squid all year round. The reproductive season appears to spread throughout the year, with a small proportion of mature females and most of the males mature in most months. No spawning peaks could be detected, indicating that reproduction probably takes place outside the areas studied. The population size structure was similar for the three fishing seasons considered, indicating a similar use of the upwelling areas for feeding.


Age, growth and population structure of the jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas in Peruvian waters
Author: Arguelles,­ J.; Rodhouse,­ P.G.; Villegas,­ P.; Castillo,­ G.
SO: Fisheries­ Research­ Amsterdam [Fish­ Res] 2001 vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 51­ 61
LA: English
Abstract:
Age, growth and population structure of the jumbo flying squid, Dosidicus gigas, from the jig fishery in Peruvian waters in 1992 were determined by reading daily increments in ground and polished sections of statoliths. The squid ranged in size from 192 to 965mm dorsal mantle length (ML) and no squid were older than 1 year. Two size groups were present in the exploited population; one group of small individuals < 490mm ML and another group of larger individuals > 520mm ML, with maximum ages of 220 and 354 days, respectively. The date of hatching estimated by back­ calculation, revealed the presence of two cohorts of small squid; one hatched in autumn/winter and recruited to the fishery in spring/summer and the other hatched in spring/summer and recruited to the fishery in autumn/winter.


Distribution and concentrations of jumbo flying squid (Dosidicus gigas) off the Peruvian coast between 1991 and 1999
Author: Taipe,­ A.; Yamashiro,­ C.; Mariategui,­ L.; Rojas,­ P.; Roque,­ C.
SO: Fisheries­ Research­ Amsterdam [Fish­ Res] 2001 vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 21­ 32
LA: English
Abstract:
Seasonal changes in the distribution and concentration of jumbo flying squid (Dosidicus gigas) off the Peruvian coast were assessed using catch and effort data from the jigging vessels that worked within the area between 1991 and 1999. The results showed a wide distribution of D. gigas along the coast, the highest concentrations occurred along the coast of northern Peru, from Puerto Pizarro (3 degree 24'S) to Chimbote (9 degree S), with low to medium concentrations observed off Pisco (13 degree 42'S) and Atico (16 degree 14'S). The highest catch per unit effort (CPUE) values occurred during autumn, winter and spring with the squid tending to disperse in summer. There is some evidence of interannual differences associated with changes in sea surface temperature. Catches, fishing effort and CPUE were the highest between 1991 and 1995 and lowest in 1996.


Approaches on hand squid jigging technique in the central North Pacific Ocean.
Author: Zhang,­ Shenghai; Sun,­ Manchang
SO: Marine­ fisheries; Haiyang­ Yuye­ Shanghai [Mar­ Fish; Haiyang­ Yuye] 1999 no. 3, pp. 116­ 118
LA: Chinese
Abstract:
Hand jigging operation plays an important role in the squid jigging fishery in North Pacific Ocean. Based on field measurements, this paper analyzed the main technical factors affecting hand jigging efficiency, including jigging rate, jigging cycle and hauling up speed of hand jigging line, and concluded that the suitable technical indexes were as follows: 1) jigging rate: 5 times/s, 2) jigging cycle: 2.16 s/time, 3) hauling up speed: 70­ 75m/s.


Comparison of catch, CPUE, and sea surface temperature in the fishing ground between good and poor fishing years for the squid jigging fishery target New Zealand southern arrow squid Nototodarus sloanii in New Zealand waters.
Author: Kato,­ Mitsuhiro; Mitani,­ Isamu
SO: Bull­ Kanagawa­ Prefect­ Fish­ Res­ Inst 2001 no. 6, pp. 35­ 46
LA: Japanese
Abstract:
The catch of New Zealand southern arrow squid Nototodarus sloanii in the good and poor fishing years were described comparatively based on the statistics of squid jigging fishery. In the good fishing years, there were two peaks of catch in mid­ February and late march. On the other hand, in the poor fishing years, there was only one peak of catch in mid­ February. Both in the good and poor fishing years, the main size of squid caught by jigging fisheries was larger than 22 cm mantle length (=320 g body weight) through the fishing season. There was a clear correlation in CPUE between smaller­ sized squid in mid­ February and larger­ sized squid in late March. This result shows the CPUE of smaller­ sized squid in the early fishing season is one potential index for estimation of the catch in the coming season. From the relationship between the sea surface temperature and CPUE (catch in tons/vessel/day), CPUE was higher when the surface temperature is more than 16 degree C in mid­ February. On the other hand, in late March, CPUE was higher when the temperature is less than 14 degree C.


Dynamics of Japanese Common Squid Fishing Fleets Derived From Nighttime Visible Satellite Data and its Nonstationary Prediction
Author: Kiyofuji,­ H.; Yoneta,­ K.; Hokimoto,­ T.; Saitoh,­ S.­ I.
SO: Bulletin­ of­ Fisheries­ Sciences,­ Hokkaido­ University [Bull­ Fish­ Sci­ Hokkaido­ Univ] 2001 vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 139­ 144
LA: Chinese
Abstract:
The Japanese common squid (Todarades pacificus) comprises the majority of the Japanese squid catch, and is one of the country's most important fisheries resources. T. pacificus has also been included as one of the target spices in the Total Allowance Catch (TAC) system since 1998. Therefore squid fishing ground, fishing season and stock abundance should be grasped and managed efficiently for a resustainable utilization. The operation of squid fishing in Japan is characterized by using lights equipped on fleets at night. Those lights distribution is identified from nighttime OLS(Operational Linescan System) images of the DMSP(Defense Meteorological Satellite Program). This paper presents a nonstationary prediction of center of fishing fleet derived from the nighttime visible satellite data. The results suggest that it is worth while to investigate more elaborate definithions for fishing fleet spatial distribution.


Temporal variability in embryonic development and mortality in the southern calamary Sepioteuthis australis: A field assessment
Author: Steer,­ M.A.; Moltschaniwskyj,­ N.A.; Gowland,­ F.C.
SO: Marine­ ecology­ progress­ series [Mar­ Ecol­ Prog­ Ser] 2002 vol. 243, pp. 143­ 150
LA: English
Abstract:
This study describes the incidence of embryonic mortality and differential development in southern calamary Sepioteuthis australis eggs. Late­ stage S. australis egg strands harbouring multiple embryos close to hatching were sampled from shallow (< 4 m) Tasmanian spawning grounds from early November 2000 to January 2001. Sepioteuthis australis embryos were found to develop asynchronously within individual egg strands with proximal embryos developing slower and suffering higher mortality than their distal siblings. The magnitude of asynchrony, however, differed throughout the season with greater within­ strand differences observed when embryos were exposed to broader incubation temperatures. Unexpectedly, embryos developed more synchronously within biologically fouled strands and displayed a significantly lower incidence of mortality compared to those developing in unfouled strands. Embryonic mortality was initially low (4%) and significantly increased to 20% in late November, remaining above 10% until late December. This dramatic increase in mortality was not strongly associated with increasing water temperatures, but coincided with a period of heavy rainfall alluding to potential salinity effects.


Description and quantification of developmental abnormalities in a natural Sepioteuthis australis spawning population (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)
Author: Gowland,­ F.C.; Moltschaniwskyj,­ N.A.; Steer,­ M.A.
SO: Marine­ ecology­ progress­ series [Mar­ Ecol­ Prog­ Ser] 2002 vol. 243, pp. 133­ 141
LA: English
Abstract:
Eggs of the southern calamary Sepioteuthis australis were sampled from spawning sites off eastern Tasmania, Australia, during an austral spring/summer spawning season. At fortnightly intervals, 3 unfouled and 3 biofouled egg strands were sampled from 6 to 23 distinct egg masses (N sub(eggs) = 2649). Highly significant variation was noted between sample dates in the frequency of unfertilised eggs, developmental abnormalities and egg mortalities. Unfertilised eggs were only found during late October and early November and represented a mean 2.12 plus or minus 1.25% SE and 0.58 plus or minus 0.58% SE eggs per strand respectively. Frequency of abnormality varied significantly between sample dates and ranged from 8.35 plus or minus 1.86% SE eggs per strand in late November to 0.92 plus or minus 0.41% SE in late December. Abnormalities were arbitrarily categorised as defects in external yolk sac morphology, reduced embryonic size, mantle deformities, eye deformities and arm deformities. Defects in external yolk sac morphology were found throughout the spawning season and accounted for 46.3% of all abnormalities. Incidence of mortality varied significantly between sample dates and ranged from 1.40 plus or minus 0.68% SE per strand in late October to 11.61 plus or minus 3.23% SE in early January. Highly significant correlation was noted between incidence of developmental abnormality and within­ strand egg position. Biofouled egg strands were characterised by comparatively low incidences of unfertilised and dead eggs. The influences of environment, egg position and biofouling upon embryonic development in S. australis are discussed.


Global warming is good (if you like calamari)
Author: Bildstein,­ T.
SO: Australasian­ science­ incorporating­ search [Australas­ Sci­ Inc­ Search] 2002 vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 30­ 32
LA: English
Abstract:
Climate change and over­ fishing of predators are increasing the biomass of squid in the oceans. Global warming and the depletion of world fisheries give this marine mollusc an advantage like no other marine creature. Sheer numbers of squid, which increase from year to year, are now making it the major player in the world's oceans. Squid are a member the cephalopod group of tentacled, bi­ headed sea molluscs that also include octopus and cuttlefish. While catches of finfish have remained fairly stable or declined over the past three decades, the cephalopod catch has increased substantially. Squid populations are no longer controlled by the limitation of food because chronic overfishing has ruined natural competition in marine ecosystems. The fish that squid used to share food resources with have now been fished out by global fishing practices, leaving squid with much more to eat.


Dynamics of Japanese Common Squid Fishing Fleets Derived From Nighttime Visible Satellite Data and its Nonstationary Prediction
Author: Kiyofuji,­ H.; Yoneta,­ K.; Hokimoto,­ T.; Saitoh,­ S.­ I.
SO: Bulletin­ of­ Fisheries­ Sciences,­ Hokkaido­ University [Bull­ Fish­ Sci­ Hokkaido­ Univ] 2001 vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 139­ 144
LA: Chinese
Abstract:
The Japanese common squid (Todarades pacificus) comprises the majority of the Japanese squid catch, and is one of the country's most important fisheries resources. T. pacificus has also been included as one of the target spices in the Total Allowance Catch (TAC) system since 1998. Therefore squid fishing ground, fishing season and stock abundance should be grasped and managed efficiently for a resustainable utilization. The operation of squid fishing in Japan is characterized by using lights equipped on fleets at night. Those lights distribution is identified from nighttime OLS(Operational Linescan System) images of the DMSP(Defense Meteorological Satellite Program). This paper presents a nonstationary prediction of center of fishing fleet derived from the nighttime visible satellite data. The results suggest that it is worth while to investigate more elaborate definithions for fishing fleet spatial distribution.


An ethogram of body patterning behavior in the biomedically and commercially valuable squid Loligo pealei off Cape Cod, Massachusetts
Author: Roger T Hanlon, Michael R Maxwell, Nadav Shashar, Ellis R Loew, Kim­ Laura Boyle
SO: The Biological Bulletin, Woods Hole Aug 1999, Volume 197, Issue 1, Pages ­ 49­ 62
Abstract:
Squids have a wide repertoire of body patterns; these patterns contain visual signals assembled from a highly diverse inventory of chromatic, postural, and locomotor components. The chromatic components reflect the activity of dermal chromatophore organs that, like the postural and locomotor muscles, are controlled directly from the central nervous system.


An ethogram of body patterning behavior in the squid Loligo vulgaris reynaudii on spawning grounds in South Africa
Author: Hanlon, Roger T, Smale, Malcolm J, Sauer, Warwick H H
SO: The Biological Bulletin, Woods Hole, Dec 1994, Volume 187, Issue 3, pg 363
Abstract:
Agonistic contexts in male squids seem to involve some variations of a Lateral Display, which is a form of "visual battle" used to establish or maintain dominance for mating.


Evidence for multiple spawning by squids (Loligo pealei) in captivity
Author: Michael R Maxwell, William K Macy, Shobu Odate, Roger T Hanlon
SO: The Biological Bulletin, Woods Hole, Oct 1998, Volume 195, Issue 2, Pages 225­ 226
Abstract:
Maxwell et al examined multiple spawning in Loligo pealei by combining anatomical information with actual reproductive output.


Throwing light on straddling stocks of Illex argentinus: Assessing fishing intensity with satellite imagery
Author: C M Waluda, P N Trathan, C D Elvidge, V R Hobson, P G Rodhouse
SO: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Ottawa Apr 2002, Volume 59, Issue 4, Pages 592­ 596
Abstract:
Waluda et al demonstrate that light emitted by fishing vessels to attract squid can be detected via remote­ sensing. Unlike conventional fisheries data, which are restricted by political boundaries, satellite imagery can provide a synoptic view of fishing activity in both regulated and unregulated areas.


Last modified: 10 April 2005